Journal of Clinical Oncology, An American Society of Clinical Oncology Journal

Abstract Background: Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha is a potent antineoplastic cytokine which exerts tumor destruction in part through vascular disruption. Local administration of TNF-alpha exerts profound anti-cancer effects as observed in studies using isolated limb perfusion. However, systemic administration of this cytokine is associated with vascular leakage and limits clinical use.